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GEORGIA

Genome of human, wolf and bison, living 25 000 years ago, found in Satsurblia cave in Georgia

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The study of the sample discovered in the Satsurblia Cave, Tskaltubo Municipality of western Georgia has revealed the genomes of humans, wolves and bisons living 25 000 years ago.
Material precipitated on the bottom of the cave for millennia has preserved the ancient human genome, or genetic material stored in the body cell. The research continues in an active manner, but the analysis revealed traces of a woman who lived 25 000 years ago, during the Last Glacial Period.
It is noteworthy that apart from human, wolf and bison genomes, stone tools were also found in the Satsurblia cave, which are more durable than bone and are a source of additional information. We can assume that the cave had been actively used by humans for a long time.
The study is led by a researcher and archaeologist from the University of Vienna and although only a small fragment of the female genome has been recovered, researchers could identify that she was a member of the previously unknown group of modern humans. This human group is currently extinct but took part in defining the genome of
certain part of current population of Europe and Asia. As for the wolf genome, it turned out that the wolf species changed completely during the Last Glacial Period, about 11,000 years ago. The bison genome found here has
revealed that it matches the genes of bison currently living in Europe and Asia, but not in America. It turns out that this genome has divided into two branches.

Translation: Tamar Tabatadze

The Hall of Young Scientists & Analysts – “Doctrina”

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